Thousand-year Cavern: Quarrying in Shepan dated back to Song dynasty and reaching its climax in Ming and Qing dynasties, one hammer and one borer developed the magnificent wonder of groups of caves. “The sound of hammer knocking for quarrying echoes for thousands of years”. The traces made by hatchets and chisels still remain”. After travelling the Shepan, Zhu Zhangcheng in Qing dynasty wrote the poem of Shi Cang to praise the significant engineer made by human.
Aerial Ladder: It is generally composed by stone steps, wooden ladders or bamboo ladders and wooden support up high in the air, which is the passage for craftsman carrying the slates from inside of the cave to the outside and also the life passage for craftsmen.
Quarrying Method: Ancient people quarried stones by means of vertical shaft. The cavern is small at upside and big at downside, in the form of vault top (urn-shape), standing for thousands of years and reflecting the excellent quarrying techniques and wisdom of craftsman.
Quarrying Tools: The main quarrying tools were hammer, hatchet, chisel, borer, steel wedge, etc. with respective functions of knocking, chiseling, prying, and extrusion.
Hold a memorial ceremony for stones: Ancient people equated the quarry with pond enclosure, suing to officials and beating tiger, as with high cost, risk and dangerousness. Therefore, before quarrying, they hold a memorial ceremony for stones-----invitation of god of mountain to pray for quarrying successfully and safely.
Stone worship: It is the custom developed in the long process of quarrying. Make one kowtow to pray for blessing and good fortune; two kowtows to pray for treasure; three kowtows to pray for longevity.
Live in Caves: Mysterious culture of living in caves is the characteristic of Shepan Island. The history of living in caves for thousands of years ends when the last family living in caves moved out of the cave in the island in 2006.
Stone Sculpture: Sanmen stone window is the representation of Shepan stone sculpture. Sanmen stone window is commonly known as stone ornamental perforated window, which is the originator of Chinese stone window art with long history, variety of sculpts, elegant sculpture, rich patterns and profound meaning. One may well say “a window of the world”.
Type of stone window: According to subject of window grille, the patterns of Sanmen stone window can be divided into nine categories, including: stone window with coin pattern, stone with window geometry pattern, stone window with flower and grass pattern, stone window with eight treasure pattern, stone window with mythical creature pattern, stone window with one vine pattern, stone window with figure pattern, stone window with animal pattern, and stone window with character pattern.